The body’s disciplinary committee handed down its decision on Friday, two days after Brazil’s fractious 1-0 loss to Colombia in Santiago, reported Xinhua news agency.
Neymar was shown a straight red card after he kicked a ball at defender Pablo Armero and then clashed with striker Carlos Bacca after the final whistle.
The Brazil captain had already received a yellow card – his second for the tournament – for a handball in the first half.
He was handed a provisional one-match ban on Thursday and Brazil’s football confederation had until Friday afternoon to present a defence for the Barcelona player.
Bacca, also sent off for pushing Neymar, has been given a two-game ban.
It is understood that both Brazil and Colombia have until Sunday to appeal the suspensions.
Neymar is expected to be replaced in the Selecao’s starting lineup by Santos forward Robinho for their final group match against Venezuela on Sunday.